martes, 21 de febrero de 2012

Politiques de Medicaments en France, Allemagne et Angleterre

Les dépenses publiques de médicaments, qui ont doublé au cours des dix dernières années, sont une préoccupation majeure en France comme dans la plupart des pays industrialisés. La France se distingue toutefois par une dépense deux fois plus élevée que l’Angleterre et une fois et demie plus élevée que l’Allemagne. Pour contrôler leurs dépenses, ces pays utilisent des listes définissant les médicaments pris en charge (liste positive) ou non pris en charge (liste négative) par les financements publics. Cette étude compare le processus de définition de ces listes et les règles de prise en charge des médicaments en France, Allemagne et Angleterre, et évalue leur impact sur la consommation de médicaments. Trois catégories de médicaments pour lesquels les pays ont adopté des stratégies différentes ont été étudiées : les benzodiazépines, les vasodilatateurs et les médicaments visant à améliorer la qualité de la vie (obésité, tabagisme). Il semble que la taille du panier pris en charge soit indépendante de la nature positive ou négative de la liste. De plus, ces exemples révèlent que ce sont les comportements de prescription et non le nombre de produits disponibles pris en charge qui expliquent les écarts de dépenses entre les pays. L’expérience de nos voisins suggère l’importance de dispositifs efficaces pour réguler la demande, notamment des incitations financières à une prescription et une consommation plus rationnelles.

Pharmaceutical Company Business Strategies

One of the constants of pharmaceutical company strategy over the past decade has been increasing scale. Only by growing larger are companies able to afford the considerable costs of drug development and distribution. This is well summarised in the PricewaterhouseCoopers report Analysis and Opinions on M&A Activity (1999).
Within this broad approach at least two business models are discernable:
(i) Blockbuster model involving the search for, and distribution of a small
number of drugs that achieve substantial global sales (say in excess of $1
billion p.a.). The success of this model depends on achieving large returns
from a small number of drugs in order to pay for the high cost of the drug
discovery and development process for a large number of candidates. Total
revenues are highly dependant on sales from a small number of drugs.
(ii) Diversification model in which a larger number of drugs are marketed to
smaller niche markets. The advantage of this model is that its success is not
dependant on sales of a small number of drugs. However without a
blockbuster to help pay for the high development costs, the model only works
for small markets where distribution costs are low.
(iii) Intermediate model which borrows some of each.
To date the blockbuster model has been recognised by industry analysts as the dominant model (see for instance Mercer Management Consulting 2001). However interest in alternative models is growing as consideration is being given to the marketing of biotech drugs with smaller markets and higher treatment costs and the expectation of more personalised medicine.

jueves, 9 de febrero de 2012

Food regulation in UK

Regulation and legislation

Food Regulations The production, processing, distribution, retail, packaging and labelling of food stuffs are governed by a mass of laws, regulations, codes of practice and guidance.

Find out more

General food law

Whether you work in a food business or you are a consumer interested in food law, there are general requirements, which are listed on this page.

The Food Standards Act 1999

The Act was introduced in the House of Commons on 10 June 1999 and received Royal Assent on 11 November 1999.

Incident report form for food and feed recalls and withdrawals

The Agency has produced an online form so food and feed businesses can notify us if they need to withdraw products from the market. The form can also be used by food authorities to report incidents.

Food Alerts, product withdrawals and recalls

The FSA issues a 'Product Withdrawal Information Notice' or a 'Product Recall Information Notice' to let local authorities and consumers know about problems associated with food. In some cases, a 'Food Alert for Action' is issued. This provides local authorities with details of specific action to be taken on behalf of consumers.

Regulatory approach

The Food Standards Agency has a statutory objective to protect public health and consumers' other interests in relation to food and drink. However, we are aware that excessive or unclear regulations can place a burden on business, the public sector and civil society groups (such voluntary groups, charities and not for profit organisations) and so hinder effective delivery of the intended benefits.

European legislation

Much of the detailed legislation on food standards originates in the European Union. This section includes details on how food hygiene legislation was consolidated and simplified as well as details of other European legislation.


The Codex Alimentarius is a series of food standards and related texts that aim to provide a high level of consumer protection and fair practice in the international trade of food and agricultural products.

Hygiene legislation

Food hygiene legislation affects all food businesses that regularly produce, handle, transport, process or supply food. This includes caterers, primary producers (such as farmers), manufacturers and retailers. How it affects you will depend on the nature of your business.


FSA policy on handling disclosures made under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998.